The characters in anime also call each other by their last names as a formality. Calling someone by their first name is a sign of closeness.
There are also Japanese honorifics, which are suffixes that are added to the end of a person’s name (whichever one they are called by). The most common are:
- -san — さん — most common; generally formal, not extremely formal but used for someone you’re not familiar with
- -sama — 様 — implies great respect; pretty formal and not used in everyday language
- -sensei — 先生 — also respectful; used for people who are mentors, teachers, or experts in their field
- -senpai — 先輩 — used for older or more experienced people; an underclassman would use this for an upperclassman
- -kun — 君 — a term of familiarity or affection, usually used for boys
- -chan — ちゃん — most informal, laced with cute connotations and used as a term of endearment
In this respect, the anime appears to be consistent with actual Japanese names and formalities. Translations into English will almost always leave out the honorifics (silly English people—sometimes this takes some of the meaning away, as honorifics are used to explain relationships, and sometimes the suffix will change as characters get closer), but anime that is Japanese-dubbed, English-subbed keeps the honorifics (obviously; none of the voices are changed).
Fantastic websites that verify the above points: